Enhancing your Yokogawa CSU Confocal Experience

The Yokogawa spinning disk confocal scanner unit is a class‐leading technology. Borealis upgrades from Spectal Applied Research bring new levels of performance to it.

This patented technology is the product of an innovative research and development program aimed at achieving the best possible imaging performance from Yokogawa Electric spinning disk confocal units. It ensures better uniformity, provides greatly increased light and offers new options for the use of lasers. It does all of this while improving reliability.


Benefits of Borealis

The typical Yokogawa CSU‐10 employs illumination that varies across the field of view by more than 20%. If the system is not well aligned, the peak is off‐center and the maximum deviation can be even larger. Borealis modifications inside the Yokogawa CSU provide more efficient collection and utilization of the available light. These changes dramatically improve the light throughput where it is needed most. The result is more power available from a given laser.

Options To Upgrade Existing Yokogawa Systems

Borealis technology can be applied as an upgrade to any generation of Yokogawa confocal unit. The upgrade will allow the use of an existing laser launch. For maximum reliability, flexibility and power it is also compatible with the Spectral Applied Research LMM5 laser merge module. When the upgrade is performed, a number of other modifications are included to enhance eye safety and improve performance.

Options To Enhance New Yokogawa Systems

Borealis technology can be added to any new Yokogawa unit. This gives the user the maximum performance and flexibility from day one. In addition it ensures rock‐solid alignment for long‐term performance. Borealis X1 technology provides better uniformity and greater throughput than the standard X1.
Uniformity of a standard CSU-10
Uniformity of a Borealis CSU-10
Relative Light Efficiency of Unmodified CSU-10, Unmodified CSU‐X1 and Borealis


The following table compares the performance of different unmodified CSU’s as delivered from Yokogawa Electric with that of a CSU‐10 with the Borealis modifications.

Characteristic Unmodified CSU‐10, CSU‐21, CSU‐22, QLC‐100, UltraView Unmodified CSU‐X1, Ultraview VoX Borealis
Relative throughput
at 405 nm: 1 1.5 >4
at 488 nm: 1 1.5 >3
at 491 nm: 1 1.5 >3
at 561 nm: 1 1.5 >2
at 642 nm: 1 1.5 >2
Excitation Wavelengths 405‒650 nm 405‒650 nm 375‒750 nm
Excitation Uniformity 20%‒40%, wavelength‐dependent 10%‒20%, wavelength‐dependent 5%, wavelength‐dependent
Relative throughput is the quotient of division of the throughput of the given CSU by the throughput of the unmodified CSU‐10. Throughput is calculated by dividing the power from the spinning disk by the power from the fiber.

The currently tested wavelength region is 400‒750 nm. Future testing will expand this range of operation to lower and higher wavelengths.

Excitation uniformity is a measurement of the percentage deviation across the field of view.


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